Inhibition of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes and Improved Storability of Banana Fruit by Using Composite Edible Coatings

Mehdi Maqbool, Noosheen Zahid, Asgar Ali, Ajit Singh


Composite effect of gum arabic (GA) (5, 10, 15 and 20%) plus 1.0% chitosan (CH) were investigated on cell wall degrading enzymes of banana stored at 13 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 3% relative humidity for 28 days and 5 days at simulated market conditions. Banana fruit coated with highest concentration of GA plus CH showed a significant (P<0.05) low concentration of cell wall degrading enzymes whereas the fruits coated with 5% GA plus 1.0% CH showed non-significant (P>0.05) difference with the control fruits. Fruits coated with 15 and 20% GA + 1.0% CH inhibited the production of cell wall degrading enzymes whilst an off flavour was recorded in these fruits. On the other hand fruits treated with 10% GA plus 1.0% CH showed a very gradual increase in cell wall degrading enzymes with a very uniform ripening of fruits. The findings of this study suggest that by using 10% GA plus 1.0% CH as an edible coating, the ripening process of banana can be delayed for up to 33 days while maintain the overall quality.


Banana; Gum arabic; Chitosan; Enzymes; Post harvest management; Postharvest storage; Edible coating; edible film; induced resistance; food borne pathogens; antimicrobial activity

Full Text:



Ali, A., N. Zahid, S. Manickam, Y. Siddiqui, and P.G. Alderson. 2013. Double layer coatings: A new technique for maintaining physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties of dragon fruit during storage. Food Bioprocess Technol. 7: 2366-2374.

Ali, A., T.M.M. Mahmud, S. Kamaruzaman and Y. Siddiqui. 2011. Effect of chitosan coatings on the physicochemical characteristics of Eksotika II papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit during cold storage. Food Chem. 124: 620-626.

Ali, Z.M., L.H. Chin and H. Lazan. 2004. A comparative study on wall degrading enzymes, pectin modifications and softening during ripening of selected tropical fruits. Plant Sci. 167: 317-327.

Awad, M. and R.E. Young. 1979. Postharvest variation in cellulase, polygalacturonase, and pectinmethylesterase in avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv. Fuerte) fruits in relation to respiration and ethylene production. Plant Physiol. 64: 306-308.

Bhaskar-Reddy, M.V., P. Angers, F. Castaigne and J. Arul. 2000. Chitosan effects on black mold rot and pathogenic factors produced by Alternaria alternate in postharvest tomatoes. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125: 742-747.

Cheng, G., X. Duan, Y. Jiang, J. Sun, S. Yang and B. Yang. 2009. Modification of hemicellulose polysaccharides during ripening of postharvest banana fruit. Food Chem. 1151: 43-47.

Conforti, F.D. and J.B. Zinck. 2002. Hydrocolloid-lipid coating effect on weight loss, pectin content, and textural quality of green bell peppers. J. Food Sci. 67: 1360-1363.

Fraeye, I., A.D. Roeck, T. Duvetter, I. Verlent, M. Hendrick and A.V. Loey. 2007. Influence of pectin properties and processing conditions on thermal pectin degradation. Food Chem. 105: 555-563.

Gol, N.B., R. Pooja, T.V. Patel and R. Rao. 2013. Improvement of quality and shelf-life of strawberries with edible coatings enriched with chitosan. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 85: 185-195.

Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.A., E. Valenzuela-Soto, J. Lizardi-Mendoza, F. Goycoolea, M.A. Martinez-Tellez, M.A. Villegas-Ochoa, I. Monroy-Garcia and J.F. Ayala-Zavala. 2009. Effect of chitosan coating in preventing deterioration and preserving the quality of fresh-cut papaya ‘Maradol’. J. Sci. Food Agric. 89: 15-23.

Gross, K.C. 1982. A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for assaying polygalacturonase using 2-cyano-acetamide. Hort. Sci. 17: 933-934.

Harpster, M.H., D.A. Brummell and P. Dunsmuir. 2002. Suppression of ripening-related endo-1,4-β-glucanase in transgenic pepper fruit does not prevent depolymerization of cell wall polysaccharides during ripening. Plant Mol. Biol. 50: 345-355.

Hewajulige, I.G.N., R.S. Wilson Wijeratnam, M.G.D.S., Perera and S.A. Fernando. 2015. Extending storage life of commercially important tropical fruits using bio-waxes. Acta Horticul. 1091: 283-290.

Kerch, G. 2015. Chitosan films and coatings prevent losses of fresh fruit nutritional quality: A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 46(2-A): 159-166.

Kojima, K., N. Sakurai and S. Kuraishi. 1994. Fruit softening in banana: correlation among stress-relaxation parameters, cell wall components and starch during ripening. Physiol. Planta. 90: 772-778.

Lazan, H., M.K. Selamat and Z.M. Ali. 1995. β-Galactosidase, polygalacturonase and pectinesterase in differential softening and cell wall modification during papaya fruit ripening. Physiol. Planta. 95: 106-112.

Lazan, H., Z.M. Ali, K.S. Liang and K.L. Yee. 1989. Polygalacturonase activity and variation in ripening of papaya fruit with tissue depth and heat treatment. Physiol. Planta. 77: 93-98.

Malerba, M. and R. Cerana. 2016. Chitosan effects on plant systems. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17: 996.

Maqbool, M., A. Ali, P.G. Alderson, N. Zahid and Siddiqui, Y. 2011. Effect of a novel edible composite coating based on gum arabic and chitosan on biochemical and physiological responses of banana fruits during cold storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59: 5474-5482.

Murayama, H., T. Katsumata, H. Endou, T. Fukushima and N. Sakurai. 2006. Effect of storage period on the molecular-mass distribution profile of pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharides in pears. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 40: 141-148.

Payasi, A., N.N. Mishra and A.L. Soares-Chaves. 2009. Biochemistry of fruit softening: An overview. Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants. 15: 103-113.

Prasanna, V., T.N. Prabhaand and R.N. Tharanathan. 2007. Fruit ripening phenomena-an overview. Critic. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 47: 1-19.

Pressey, R. 1983. β-Galactosidases in ripening tomatoes. Plant Physiol. 71: 132-135.

Romanazzi, G., E. Feliziani, S.B. Baños and D. Sivakumar. 2017. Shelf life extension of fresh fruit and vegetables by chitosan treatment. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 57(3): 579-601.

Romanazzi, G., F. Nigro, A. Ippolito, D. Di Venere and M. Salerno. 2002. Effects of pre- and postharvest chitosan treatments to control storage grey mold of table grapes. J. Food Sci. 67: 1862-1867.

Romanazzi, G., S.M. Sanzani, Y. Bi, S. Tian, P.G. Martínez and N. Alkan. 2016. Induced resistance to control postharvest decay of fruit and vegetables. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 122: 82-94.

Ruoyi, K., Y. Zhifang and L. Zhaoxin. 2005. Effect of coating and intermittent warming on enzymes, soluble pectin substances and ascorbic acid of Prunus persica (Cv. Zhonghuashoutao) during refrigerated storage. Food Res. Int. 38: 331-336.

Sakif, T.I., A. Dobriansky, K. Russell and T. Islam. 2016. Does chitosan extend the shelf life of fruits? Adv. Biosci. Biotechnol. 7(8): 6.

Song, H., W. Yuan, P. Jin, W. Wang, X. Wang, L. Yang and Y. Zhang. 2016. Effects of chitosan/nano-silica on postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of loquat fruit during cold storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 119: 41-48.

Steinhauser, M.C., D. Steinhauser, K. Koehl, F. Carrari, Y. Gibson, A.R. Fernie and M. Stitt. 2010. Enzyme activity profiles during fruit development in tomato cultivars and Solanum pennellii. Plant Physiol. 153: 80-98.

Tieman, D.M., R.W. Harriman, G. Ramamohan and A.K. Handa. 1991. An antisense pectin methylesterase gene alters pectin chemistry and soluble solids in tomato fruit. Plant Cell. 4: 667-679.

Ullah, S., A.S. Khan, A.U. Malik, M. Shahid and K. Razzaq. 2015. Cultivar, harvest location and cold storage influence fruit softening and antioxidative activities of peach fruit [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.]. Pak. J. Bot. 47: 699-709.

Versino, F., O.V. Lopez, M.A. Garcia and N.E. Zaritzky. 2016. Starch-based films and food coatings: An overview. Starch - Stärke. 68(11-12): 1026-1037.

Vieira, J.M., M.L. Flores-López, D.J. de Rodríguez, M.C. Sousa, A.A. Vicente and J.T. Martins. 2016. Effect of chitosan–Aloe vera coating on postharvest quality of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 116: 88-97.

Vogler, H., D. Felekis, B.J. Nelson and U. Grossniklaus. 2015. Measuring the mechanical proeprties of plant cell walls. Plants. 4: 167-182.

Xing, Y., Q. Xu, X. Li, C. Chen, L. Ma, S. Li, Z. Che and H. Lin. 2016. Chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agents: preparation, property, mechanism, and application effectiveness on fruits and vegetables. Int. J. Polym. Sci. 2016: 24.

Yaman, Ö. and L. Bayoindirli. 2002. Effects of edible coating and cold storage on shelf-life and quality of cherries. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie. 35: 146-150.

Yeats, T.H. and J.K.C. Rose. 2013. The formation and function of plant cuticles. Plant Physiol. 163: 5-20.

Zheng, X., S. Tian, X. Meng and B. Li. 2007. Physiological and biochemical responses in peach fruit to oxalic acid treatment during storage at room temperature. Food Chem. 104: 156-162.

Zhou, R., Y. Li, L. Yan and J. Xie. 2011. Effect of edible coatings on enzymes, cell membrane integrity, and cell-wall constituents in relation to brittleness and firmness of Huanghua pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, cv. Huanghua) during storage. Food Chem. 124: 569-575.

Zhou, R., Y. Mo, Y. Li, Y. Zhao, G. Zhang and Y. Hu. 2008. Quality and internal characteristics of Huanghua pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, cv. Huanghua) treated with different kinds of coatings during storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 49: 171-179.


Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Follow us at Facebook: