Impacts of Solid Waste Management Practices on Environment and Public Health: A Case of Bahawalpur City, Pakistan

Muhammad Mohsin, Annatoria Chinyama


Safe and secure disposal of solid waste is now becoming a major issue for most of developing countries with accelerating urbanization and increasing pressure of populations. A study was conducted in Bahawalpur City; Pakistan. The main objective of the study was to investigate the sources and impacts of solid waste management practices on the surrounding environment and public health. This was achieved by specifically identifying the sources and types of solid waste in the city by identifying the different solid waste management practices and their impacts on the environment and human health. Data about solid waste generation, collection, disposal and their impacts on human health and environment was collected in Model Town C using a structured questionnaire from 80 randomly sampled respondents as well as by field observations. Secondary data from institutional records was also collected. Statistical analysis in the form of descriptive statistics and chi-square test were applied to the data. It was found that the environment in study area was highly polluted with open dumping of solid waste in open spaces and vacant plots. Households contributed the most solid waste generation and open dumping. The solid waste generated at household level consisted of organic waste, plastics and polythene bags. Institutionally, Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA) and later Bahawalpur Waste Management Company (BWMC) were found to be responsible for solid waste management in the city but the overall situation is not satisfactory. The impacts of poor solid waste management practices were found to be: land degradation, creation of breeding grounds for disease carrying vectors such as mosquitoes, rats, rodents, decrease in land values; and different severe diseases. Furthermore, it was found by statistical analysis, that there was a significant relationship between the poor solid waste management practices and environmental and health problems faced by the community.


Dumping sites; Environment; Public health; Solid waste management practices Urbanization; Solid Waste Management; Urban waste

Full Text:



Abedullah. 2006. Sources and consequences of environmental pollution and institutions role in Pakistan. J. App. Sci. 6: 3134-3139.

Abel, A. 2007. An analysis of solid waste generation in a traditional African city: the example of Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Environ. Urb. 19: 527-537.

Aglanu, L.M. and D.O. Appiah. 2014. The Korle Lagoon in Distress: The stress of urban solid waste on water bodies in Accra, Ghana. Int. J. Inn. App. Stud. 7(2): 717-728.

Akaateba, M.A. and I. Yakubu, 2013. Householders’ satisfaction towards solid waste collection services of Zoomlion Ghana Ltd in Wa, Ghana. Euro. Sci. J. 9: 198-213.

Alam, P. and K. Ahmade. 2013. Impact of solid waste on health and the environment. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. Green Eco. 2:165-168.

Alhassan, M. and J. Mohammed. 2013. Households’ demand for better solid waste disposal services: Case study of four communities in the New Juaben Municipality, Ghana. J. Sustain. Dev. 6:16-25.

Aljaradin, M., K.M. Persson and E. Sood. 2015. The role of informal sector in waste management, A case study; Tafila-Jordan. Resour. Environ. 5:9-14.

Al-Khatib, I.A. and H.A. Arafat. 2010. A review of residential solid waste management in the Occupied Palestinian Territory: A window for improvement? Waste Manage. Res. 28: 481-488.

Al-Khatib, I.A., M. Monou, A. Salam, A. Zahra, H.Q. Shaheen and D. Kassinos. 2010. Solid waste characterization, quantification and management practices in developing countries. A case study: Nablus District – Palestine. J. Environ. Manage. 91:1131-1138.

Altaf, M.A. and J.R. Deshazo. 1996. Household Demand for Improved Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Gujranwala, Pakistan. World Develop. 24:857-868.

Anjum, R. 2013. Willingness to pay for solid waste management services: A case study of Islamabad. CEECC Working Paper No. 3. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Arshad, S., A. Shafqat, A.A. Khan and Q. Safdar. 2013. Youth environmental complaints in Bahawalpur City, Pakistan: An informational intervention for local environmental governance. Human Geographies: J. Stud. Res. Human Geog. 7: 71-80.

Asian Development Bank (ADB), Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2006. Promoting Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle in South Asia. Synthesis Report of 3R South Asia Expert Workshop Kathmandu, Nepal, 30 August -1 September 2006.

Awomeso, J.A., A.M. Taiwo, A.M. Gbadebo and A.O. Arimoro. 2010. Waste disposal and pollution management in urban areas: A workable remedy for the environment in developing countries. Am. J. Environ. Sci. 6: 26-32.

Bandara, N.J.G., J.P.A. Hettiaratchi, S.C. Wirasinghe and S. Pilapiiya. 2007. Relation of waste generation and composition to socio-economic factors: A case study. Environ. Mon. Assess. 135: 31-39.

Boadi, K.O. and M. Kuitunen. 2002. Urban waste pollution in the Korle Lagoon, Accra, Ghana. Environmentalist. 22(4): 301-309.

Bolyard, S.C., and D.R. Reinhart. 2016. Application of landfill treatment approaches for stabilization of municipal solid waste. Waste Manage. 55: 22-30.

Botkin, D.B. and E.A. Keller. 2011. Environmental Science: Earth as Living Planet (8th Ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Brennan, E.M. 1999. Population, Urbanization, Environment, and Security: A Summary of the Issues. Environmental Change & Security Project Report. 5: 4-14.

BWMC. 2015. Company Profile. Bahawalpur Waste Management Company (BWMC), Retrieved from on October 31, 2015.

Chithra, K., P.P. Anilkumar and M.A. Naseer. 2016. Municipal solid waste management, a major impacted sector of urban environment due to residential land use activities- Study of Kozhikode City. Procedia Environ. Sci. 35: 110-118.

Coad, A. 2011. Collection of Municipal Solid Waste: Key issues for Decision-makers in Developing Countries. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITATE), Nairobi, Kenya.

Dunfa, K.D. and T.V. Krishna. 2013. Environmental impact assessment: A study on status of solid waste in Addis Ababa, Ethopia. Asian J. Res. in Soc. Sci. Hum. 3: 137-147.

EPD (Environment Protection Department). 2015. Solid Waste. Environment Protection Department, Government of the Punjab, Lahore. Retrieved from on 8 Nov. 2015.

Ezebilo, E.E. and D.E. Animasaun. 2011. Households’ perceptions of private sector municipal solid waste management services: A binary choice analysis. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. 8: 677-686.

Festus, M.O. and O.B. Ogoegbunam. 2012. Imperatives of environmental education and awareness creation to solid waste management in Nigeria. Acad. Res. Int. 3: 253-258.

Fudala-Ksiazek, S., M. Pierpaoli, E. Kulbat and A. Luczkiewicz. 2016. A modern solid waste management strategy – the generation of new by-products. Waste Manage. 49: 516-529.

Gillespie, T. 2016. Accumulation by urban dispossession: Struggle over urban space in Accra, Ghana. Trans. Inst. Br. Geogr. 41(1): 66-77.

Govt. of Punjab. 2014. Punjab Development Statistics 2014. Bureau of Statistics, Government of the Punjab, Lahore.

Guerrero, L.A., G. Maas and W. Hogland. 2013. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Waste Manage. 33: 220-232.

Halla, F. and B. Majani. 1999. Innovative ways for solid waste management in Dar-Es-Salaam: Toward stakeholder partnerships. Habitat Int. 23: 351-361.

Hamer, G. 2003. Solid waste treatment and disposal: Effects on public health and environmental safety. Biotechnol. Adv. 22(1–2): 71-79.

Han, Z., H. Ma, G. Shi, L. He, L. Wei and Q. Shi. 2016. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Sci. Total Environ. 569–570: 1255-1264.

Haryono, 2015. The Identification of city solid waste management based on the active participation of families and trash pickers. Acad. Res. Int. 6: 177-184.

Jadoon, A., S.A. Batool and M.N. Chaudhry. 2014. Assessment of factors affecting household solid waste generation and its composition in Gulberg Town, Lahore, Pakistan. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage. 16: 73-81.

Jaunich, M.K., J.W. Levis, J.F. DeCarolis, E.V. Gaston, M.A. Barlaz, S.L. Bartelt-Hunt, E.G. Jones, L. Hauser and R. Jaikumar. 2016. Characterization of municipal solid waste collection operations. Resour. Conserv. Recy. 114: 92-102.

Khan, A.A., M. Fatima and K. Khan. 2014. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Health Risks: A Case of Bahawalpur District, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Comm. Soc. Sci. 8: 238-257.

Kjeldsen, P., M.A. Barlaz, A.P. Rooker, A. Baun, A. Ledin and T.H. Christensen. 2002. Present and Long-Term Composition of MSW Landfill Leachate: A Review. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32(4): 297-336.

Kolekar, K.A., T. Hazra and S.N. Chakrabarty. 2016. A review on prediction of municipal solid waste generation models. Proc. Environ. Sci. 35: 238-244.

Laner, D., M. Crest, H. Scharff, J.W.F. Morris and M.A. Barlaz. 2012. A review of approaches for the long-term management of municipal solid waste landfills. Waste Manage. 32(3): 498-512.

Lee, C.K.M., C.L. Yeung, Z.R. Xiong and S.H. Chung. 2016. A mathematical model for municipal solid waste management – A case study in Hong Kong. Waste Manage. 58: 430-441.

Longe, E.O., O.O. Longe and E.F. Ukpebor. 2009. People’s perception on household solid waste management in Ojo Local Government Area in Nigeria. Iranian J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng. 6: 201-208.

Mahar, A., R.N. Malik, A. Qadir, T. Ahmed, Z. Khan and M.A. Khan. 2007. Review and Analysis of Current Solid Waste Management Situation in Urban Areas of Pakistan. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, 5–7 September 2007, Chennai, India, p.34–41.

Marshall, R.E. and K. Farahbakhsh. 2013. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries. Waste Manage. 33(4): 988-1003.

Masood, M., C.Y. Barlow and D.C. Wilson. 2014. An assessment of the current municipal solid waste management system in Lahore, Pakistan. Waste Manage. Res. 32: 834-847.

Memon, M.A. 2010. Integrated solid waste management based on the 3R approach. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage. 12(1): 30-40.

Mohsin, M., M.M. Anwar and M.J. Iqbal. 2016. Practice and conditions of solid waste management in Ahmedpur East, Bahawalpur, Pakistan: A way forward. Sindh Univ. Res. J. 48: 95-100.

Muhammad, M.N. and H.I. Manu. 2013. Gender roles in informal solid waste management in cities of Northern Nigeria: A case study of Kaduna Metropolis. Acad. Res. Int. 4: 142-153.

Mukherjee, S., S. Mukhopadhyay, M.A. Hashim and B. Sen Gupta. 2015. Contemporary Environmental Issues of Landfill Leachate: Assessment and Remedies. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45(5): 472-590.

Najam, S., R. Nawaz, S. Ahmad, N. Ehsan, M.M. Khan and M.H. Nawaz. 2015. Heavy metals contamination of soils and vegetables irrigated with municipal wastewater: A case study of Faisalabad, Pakistan. J. Environ. Agric. Sci. 4: 6-10.

Noor, S., M. Fatima and S. Sehrish, 2014. Unsustainable environment and prevalence of diseases in urban slums: A case of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Int. Res. J. Environ. Sci. 3: 74-82.

Ogunyanwo, O.O. and A.A. Soyingbe. 2014. Determinants of solid waste collection and disposal: Differentials of high and low density areas of Sango – Ota Metropolis. Int. J. Dev. Res. 4: 2005-2009.

Ojelade, I.A. and B.G. Aregbesola. 2014. Environmental sustainable development: Focusing on solid waste reduction in Nyanya and Environ of Abuja, Nigeria. Adv. Soc. Sci. Res. J. 1: 126-131.

Ojok, J., M.K. Koech, M. Tole and J. Okot-Okumu. 2013. Households' willingness to pay for improved municipal solid waste management services in Kampala, Uganda. Sci. J. Environ. Eng. Res. 2013:sjeer-143.

Oteng-Ababio, M. 2012. The role of the informal sector in solid waste management in the GAMA, Ghana: Challenges and opportunities. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie. 103(4): 412-425.

Ozcan, H., S. Guvenc, L. Guvenc and G. Demir. 2016. Municipal solid waste characterization according to different income levels: A case study. Sustainability. 8(10): 1044.

Pires, A., G. Martinho and N.-B. Chang. 2011. Solid waste management in European countries: A review of systems analysis techniques. J. Environ. Manage. 92(4): 1033-1050.

Ready, R.C. 2005. Do Landfills Always Depress Nearby Property Values? Rural Development Paper No. 27, The Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, The Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA. Retrieved from on October 31, 2015.

Saeid, N., A. Roudbari and K. Yaghmaeian. 2014. Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iranian J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng. 12: 1-7.

Samuel, O.O. 2015. Socio-economic correlates of household solid waste generation: Evidence from Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. Manage. Res. Prac. 7: 44-54.

Shafqat, A., S. Noor and M. Fatima. 2014. Practices and challenges of municipal solid waste management in Bahawalpur City, Pakistan. J. Sustain. Sci. Manage. 9: 90-98.

Sharholy, M., K. Ahmad, G. Mahmood and R.C. Trivedi. 2008. Municipal solid waste management in Indian cities: A review. Waste Manage. 28(2): 459-467.

Taylor, R.G. and A. Allen. 2006. Waste disposal and landfill: Information needs. In: Schmoll, O., Howard, G., Chilton, J., Chorus, I. (Eds.), Protecting Groundwater for Health: Managing the Quality of Drinking-water Sources. IWA, London.

The Urban Unit. 2011. Bahawalpur City Profile. The Urban Unit, P&D Department, Govt. of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Retrieved from on January 07, 2014.

Visvanathan, C. and U. Glawe. 2006. Domestic Solid Waste Management in South Asian Countries – A Comparative Analysis. In: 3 R South Asia Expert Workshop, 30 August - 1 September 2006, Kathmandu, Nepal, p. 1-14.

Wokekoro, E. and L. Uruesheyi. 2014. The Impact of open waste dumps on rental values of residential properties in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Int. J. Sci. Res. 3: 226-230.

Zhang, D.Q., S.K. Tan and R.M. Gersberg. 2010. Municipal solid waste management in China: Status, problems and challenges. J. Environ. Manage. 91(8): 1623-1633.

Zurbrugg, C. 2002. Urban Solid Waste Management in Low-Income Countries of Asia: How to Cope with the Garbage Crisis. In: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) Urban Solid Waste Management Review Session, Durban, South Africa, November,p.1-13.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Follow us at Facebook: