Indus Basin Irrigation System and Climatic Trends Regarding Glacial Regimes and Water Runoff

Umar Nawaz, Smawia Shahid, Rafiq Ahmad, Muhammad Usman Ibrahim, Aftab Wajid, Abdul Manan, Muhammad Ibrar Qureshi


Glaciers, rivers and other water resources are important to sustainability of life. Pakistan have world’s most precious irrigation network.  This review explains the evidences, inconsistent changes, factors of glacier changes in Himalaya and Karakorum. Deviations in seasonal temperature shifts, snow cover elevations and snowfall trends are most effective factors in this regard. These are directly influencing flow rate in Indus delta. Climate change is affecting entire system very significantly. This study evaluates different aspects of these issues with economic and social influence. Understanding the importance of all these factors requires investigated situations at upper elevations with advanced monitoring system and modern technological tools. This will mark glacier regimes, water requirements, irrigation network, river flow, irrigation requirements and irrigation efficiency from glacier bodies to the end use. Water security is defined with respect to agricultural water use efficiency. Irrigation needs for agriculture are key defining points of water use efficiency. Irrigation efficiency needs to be enhanced for better agricultural productivity. Pattern of recent floods and droughts is also studied in this review. Energy shortage affects water resources and water usages. In conclusion, the extensive study was conducted to evaluate the irrigation network, water resources, natural extremes, droughts and water security under present scenario.


Agricultural productivity; Droughts; Groundwater; Integrated water resource management; Irrigation requirements; Irrigation use efficiency; Irrigation water; Water resources; Water security

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